EVALUATING THE WEED DIVERSITY RESPONSIBLE FOR COTTON YIELD REDUCTION IN DISTRICTS JHANG AND TOBA TEK SINGH OF PAKISTAN
A survey was conducted to determine the spatial variation in weed spectrum in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields at Jhang and Toba Tek Singh districts. Weeds are unnecessary plants and are undesirable and dangerous for the cotton fields due to their competitive and allelopathic behavior. Quadrat method (1m x 1m) was used to record the data from each site. Number of individuals of each species was counted in each quadrat. Collected data was used to calculate weed spectrum, frequency (%) and density (%). Total number of fourteen species belonged to diverse families was observed from selected sites. In selected six sites various families Amaranthaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Poaceae and Azoaceae were commonly present. In the selected six sites, common weeds Cucumis melo, Dactyloctenium aegyptiacum, Digera muricata, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon were recorded. In Zaki Chowk and Naya Shehar Dactyloctenium aegyptiacun (L.) was the abundant species of cotton fields. In cotton fields at Pakhra Sultan Digera muricata L. was the most common weed. In the M. Safdar Shaheen cotton fields Trianthema portulacastrum L. was the most common weed. Laptoclova chinensis was the most dominant weed at Azafi Abadi Chack 296 GB. At Chak 153 cotton fields Tribulus terrestris L. was the most dominant weed. Analysis of soil sasmples were also done. Ec, Ph and nutrients concentration were concluded from soil extracted water. Weed species can be controlled in this region by using the effective control measurement.
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